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Abstract  Basic principles underlie Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and there are explanations for the distribution and frequency of alleles in human populations. Processes such as genetic drift, gene flow, and selection are at work. The HLA system serves as a model for these themes. The important issue of linkage disequilibrium is described and there is discussion of multifactorial inheritance. The chapter closes with a brief examination of the recent evolution of Homo sapiens.

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